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heraclius in arabic

Abu Sufyan told me that Heraclius said to him, "When I enquired you what he (i.e. The latter married Nike, daughter of the Persian general Shahrbaraz, or daughter of Niketas, cousin of Heraclius. Owing to his role as the Roman Emperor at the time Islam emerged, he was remembered in Arabic literature, such as the Islamic hadith and sira. This prince, instead of receiving the envoy with any respect, cruelly murdered him. With its economy disrupted, its administration disorganized, its army depleted and demoralized, its factions engaging in civil strife, its peasants enfeebled by excessive exactions, its religious dissenters alienated by persecution, and its authority challenged by a powerful aristocracy, the empire lacked the strength necessary to expel the invaders, and possibly even to survive. 575?-641. WikiMatrix. Slavs swarmed over the Balkan Peninsula. Heraclius then left for Homs. [18] In a letter delivered by his ambassadors, Heraclius acknowledged the Persian empire as superior, described himself as Khosrow II's "obedient son, one who is eager to perform the services of your serenity in all things," and even called Khosrow II the "supreme emperor. add example. Heraclius then asked for the letter that was sent to him by the Prophet and delivered by Dihyah to the Governor of Busraa, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. How to say Heraclius in English? [77], "Heraclius I" redirects here. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas. Heraclius was the eldest son of Heraclius the Elder and Epiphania, of a family of possible Armenian origin from Cappadocia,[A 1][2] with speculative Arsacid descent. Jesus, son of Mary, announced you. With a keen sense of reality, he adjusted the empire to the needs of the 7th century, departmentalizing the great state offices and replacing Latin with Greek as the official language. Within a short period of time, the Arabs conquered Mesopotamia, Armenia and Egypt. [6] He later had the genitalia removed from the body because Phocas had raped the wife of Photius, a powerful politician in the city. Overlooking their perfidy, he finally made peace with them and was free to take the offensive against the Persians. He tried to repair the schism in the Christian church in regard to the Monophysites, by promoting a compromise doctrine called Monothelitism. [49] The Croats and Serbs of Byzantine Dalmatia initiated diplomatic relations and dependencies with Heraclius. For this reason, Heraclius was viewed as a heretic and bad ruler by some later religious writers. [20], With the Persians at the very gate of Constantinople, Heraclius thought of abandoning the city and moving the capital to Carthage, but the powerful church figure Patriarch Sergius convinced him to stay. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas. Heraclius was born in eastern Anatolia. Then Heraclius added, "These are really the qualities of a prophet." [81], During the last years of Heraclius's life, it became evident that a struggle was taking place between Heraclius Constantine and Martina, who was trying to position her son Heraklonas to assume the throne. [17] When the Sasanians reached Chalcedon in 615, it was at this point, according to Sebeos, that Heraclius had agreed to stand down and was about ready to allow the Byzantine Empire to become a Persian client state, even permitting Khosrow II to choose the emperor. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Emperor of the Byzantine Empire who captured Syria, Palestine, and Egypt from Persia but lost them all to an army of Muslim Arabs . [31] In 626 the Avars and Slavs supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, besieged Constantinople, but the siege ended in failure (the victory was attributed to the icons of the Virgin which were led in procession by Sergius about the walls of the city),[32] while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius's brother Theodore. Heraclius exploited divisions within the Persian Empire, keeping Shahrbaraz neutral by convincing him that Khosrow had grown jealous of him and had ordered his execution. [57][58] For Christians of Western Medieval Europe, Heraclius was the "first crusader". Since the 4th century, when Roman emperors adopted Christianity, they had endeavoured to preserve uniform theological belief and, notably in Egypt, Syria, and Armenia, had persecuted those with differing Christological views. He failed. [3] Beyond that, there is little specific information known about his ancestry. Looking back at the reign of Heraclius, scholars have credited him with many accomplishments. The next two years he devoted to campaigns in Armenia, the manpower of which was vital to the empire, and to a devastating invasion of Persia. In Islamic and Arab histories Heraclius is the only Roman Emperor who is discussed at any length. [26] Heraclius would stay on campaign for several years. "[65] According to the Muslim sources reported by El-Cheikh, he tried to convert the ruling class of the Empire, but they resisted so strongly that he reversed his course and claimed that he was just testing their faith in Christianity. [73] and it is possible that he and his advisors actually viewed the Muslims as some special sect of Jews.[44]. The war initially went the Persians' way, partly because of Phocas's brutal repression and the succession crisis that ensued as the general Heraclius sent his nephew Nicetas to attack Egypt, enabling his son Heraclius the younger to claim the throne in 610. The Heraclians presided over a period of cataclysmic events that were a watershed in the history of the Empire and the world in general. [9] Khosrow II (Chosroes) of the Sasanian Empire had been restored to his throne by Maurice, and they had remained allies until the latter's death. In the first and last years of a long reign, the emperor appears to be the slave of sloth, of pleasure, or of superstition, the careless and impotent spectator of the public calamities. [81] Theodorus had the same treatment but was sent to Gaudomelete (possibly modern-day Gozo Island) with additional instructions to cut off one leg. After his troops had fasted and prayed three days, he opened the Bible in their presence, apparently at random, and read a passage that could be interpreted only as a divine command to withdraw. (2018). Returning to Constantinople in triumph, he was hailed as a Moses, an Alexander, a Scipio. [64], In Muslim tradition he is seen as a just ruler of great piety, who had direct contact with the emerging Islamic forces. All Free. Mindful of the propagandistic value of Khosrow’s response, Heraclius made it public. [41], By 629, the Islamic Prophet Muhammad had unified all the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula, previously too divided to pose a serious military challenge to the Byzantines or the Persians. [A 1] He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language. During his last years, Heraclius seems to have suffered from enlargement of the prostate gland, retention of urine, and a consequent inflammation. Edward Gibbon, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, wrote: Of the characters conspicuous in history, that of Heraclius is one of the most extraordinary and inconsistent. Heraclius lost many of his newly regained lands to the Muslim conquests. A year later, he had married his niece Martina, thus offending the religious scruples of many of his subjects, who viewed his second marriage as incestuous and Martina as accursed., h2g2 - Byzantium: Heraclius and the Persians, Jewish Virtual Library - Biography of Heraclius. He came to power by overthrowing his predecessor Phocas. He was, in effect, leading the first crusade. Muhammad) ordered you, you replied that he ordered you to establish the prayer, to speak the truth, to be chaste, to keep promises and to pay back trusts." Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. en Teimuraz's children of his marriage to Tamar of Kartli were: Heraclius II (November 7, 1720 – January 11, 1798), the future king of Kakheti and of Kartli and Kakheti. The Persian king Khosrow II was overthrown and executed by his son Kavad II, who soon sued for a peace treaty, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territory. Emperor Heraclius synonyms, Emperor Heraclius pronunciation, Emperor Heraclius translation, English dictionary definition of Emperor Heraclius. In 614 the Persians conquered Syria and Palestine, taking Jerusalem and what was believed to be Christ’s Cross, and in 619 occupied Egypt and Libya. He commanded a Christian. Ultimately, the reformed Imperial army halted the Muslims in Asia Minor and held on to Carthage for another 60 years, saving a core from which the empire's strength could be rebuilt. Despite widespread hatred for Martina in Constantinople, Heraclius took her on campaigns with him and refused attempts by Patriarch Sergius to prevent and later dissolve the marriage.[8]. [A 1]He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Empire's official language. When he reached the capital, the Excubitors, an elite Imperial Guard unit led by Phocas's son-in-law Priscus, deserted to Heraclius, and he entered the city without serious resistance. Pronunciation of Heraclius with 1 audio pronunciation, 1 meaning, 10 translations, 4 sentences and more for Heraclius. Heraclius - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. In that work, Heraclius is portrayed as declining the Prophet's request to renounce his belief in Christianity; he is therefore defeated by the Muslim forces. Islamic view of Heraclius. [12][13], By this time, the Persians had conquered Mesopotamia and the Caucasus, and in 611 they overran Syria and entered Anatolia. Meanwhile, the younger Heraclius sailed eastward with another force via Sicily and Cyprus. For the Georgian king, see. Because the engagement was a Byzantine victory, there was no apparent reason to make changes to the military organization of the region. [53], Up to the 20th century he was credited with establishing the Thematic system but modern scholarship now points more to the 660s, under Constans II.[54]. 'Heraclius in Early Islamic Kerygma' Edited by Reinink and Stolte. As a statesman it is also difficult to think of him as merely a religious fanatic. Soon after, he initiated reforms to rebuild and strengthen the military. 4 in a few years..[62]. His attempts at religious harmony failed, but he succeeded in returning the True Cross, one of the holiest Christian relics, to Jerusalem. In Islamic and Arab histories Heraclius is the only Roman Emperor who is discussed at any length. The illegitimate son is recorded by a number of different spellings including: Atalarichos, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, De Administrando Imperio, ch. [7], On October 5, 610, Heraclius was crowned for a second time, this time in the Chapel of St. Stephen within the Great Palace; at the same time he married Fabia, who took the name Eudokia. The available information on Heraclius in the Arabic- [50] The Serbs, who briefly lived in Macedonia, became foederati and were baptized at the request of Heraclius (before 626). Indeed, in the ensuing hostilities, a pious poet contrasted the dancing girls in the Persian general’s tent with the psalm singers in the Emperor’s. [55], Heraclius was long remembered favourably by the Western church for his reputed recovery of the True Cross from the Persians. The Barletta Colossos revisited. His attempts at religious harmony failed, but he succeeded in returning the True Cross, one of the holiest Christian relics, to Jerusalem. After violent spasms, he died in February 641, bequeathing the empire to his two elder sons, the consumptive Constantine III of his first marriage and Heracleonas, his son by Martina. Heraclius definition: ?575–641 ad , Byzantine emperor , who restored the Holy Cross to Jerusalem (629) | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples [72] Outside of Islamic sources there is no evidence to suggest Heraclius ever heard of Islam. In 622, clad as a penitent and bearing a sacred image of the Virgin, he left Constantinople, as prayers rose from its many sanctuaries for victory over the Persian Zoroastrians, the recovery of the Cross, and the reconquest of Jerusalem. (see hadith 6 vol 1) He assembled his forces in Asia Minor, probably in Bithynia, and, after he revived their broken morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war; an acheiropoietos image of Christ was carried as a military standard.[22][23][24][25]. Only when Yazdgerd III, a grandson of Khosrow II, succeeded to the throne in 632 was there stability. In Islamic and Arab histories Heraclius is the only Roman Emperor that is talked of any in any length. Heraclius entered diplomatic relations with the Croats and Serbs in the Balkans. [45] The Battle of Yarmouk in 636 resulted in a crushing defeat for the larger Byzantine army; within three years, the Levant had been lost again. The effects were revolutionary. Heraclius was given command of a fleet which, when it was sighted from Constantinople, caused an immediate rebellion and the overthrow of Phokas right there and then. He enlarged the Empire, and his reorganization of the government and military were great successes. In 608, Heraclius the Elder renounced his loyalty to the Emperor Phocas, who had overthrown Maurice six years earlier. Thus, when in 623 his victorious soldiers wanted to penetrate deeper into Persia, contrary to his plan to retire, he referred the matter to God. There, astride his renowned war-horse, he killed three Persian generals in single combat, charged into enemy ranks at the head of his troops, killed the Persian commander, and scattered the Persian host. (1) Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas: Abu Sufyan bin Harb informed me that heraclius had sent a messenger to him while he had been accompanying a caravan from Quraish. 28. [37], Heraclius's defeat of the Persians ended a war that had been going on intermittently for almost 400 years and led to instability in the Persian Empire. Safe behind the walls of Constantinople, Heraclius was able to sue for peace in exchange for an annual tribute of a thousand talents of gold, a thousand talents of silver, a thousand silk robes, a thousand horses, and a thousand virgins to the Persian King. The word "heraclius" appear 59 time(s) in 11 hadith(s) in Sahih Al-Bukhari صحيح البخاري translation. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Phocas's reply—"And will you rule better? His mercy contrasted sharply with Khosrow’s acerbity and probably hastened his victory in Persia. 1060),[59] and then it became popular, especially in France, the Italian Peninsula, and the Holy Roman Empire. The Roman army proceeded to Armenia, inflicted a defeat on an army led by a Persian-allied Arab chief, and then won a victory over the Persians under Shahrbaraz. Khosrow was overthrown by his son, with whom Heraclius made peace, demanding only the return of the Cross, the captives, and conquered Roman territory. "—so enraged Heraclius that he beheaded Phocas on the spot. Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. But by then the Sasanid Empire was severely disorganised, having been weakened by years of war and civil strife over the succession to the throne. This way peaceful relations were restored to the two deeply strained empires. After her death in 612, he married his niece Martina in 613; this second marriage was considered incestuous and was very unpopular. The Turkic Avars, who ruled over the Slavic and other tribes that occupied the region between the Don and the Alps, exacted tribute. Owing to his role as the Roman Emperor at the time Islam emerged, he was remembered in Arabic literature, such as the Islamic hadith and sira. But the Romans sank the primitive Avar fleet that was to transport Persian units across the Bosporus and repelled the unsupported Avar assault. In October 610 Heraclius dropped anchor off Constantinople, deposed Phocas, and was crowned emperor of a crumbling state, occupied by invaders and wracked with internal dissension. Example sentences with "Heraclius", translation memory. His reforms of the government reduced the corruption which had taken hold in Phocas's reign, and he reorganized the military with great success. The fate of the empire hung in the balance. When Heraclius died, he devised the empire to both Heraclius Constantine and Heraklonas to rule jointly with Martina as Empress. Meaning that Heraclius said this in his language to his translator, who then said it to Abû Sufyân in Arabic. illegitimate king by the rules of succession), was eventually deposed by Heraclius, who sailed to Constantinople from Carthage with an icon affixed to the prow of his ship. Most scholars now agree that it was Heraclius who initiated the militarization of Anatolia, known as the theme (military district) system, which was further developed and extended by his successors. It was apparently a happy marriage, Martina accompanying him on his campaigns and bearing him nine children. Within a few years both empires were overwhelmed by the onslaught of the Arabs, who had become newly united by Islam,[40] ultimately leading to the Muslim conquest of Persia and the fall of the Sasanian dynasty in 651. His father, probably of Armenian descent, was governor of the Roman province of Africa when an appeal came from Constantinople to save the Eastern Roman Empire from the terror and incompetence of the emperor Phocas. [22], On April 5, 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son. At first, when he was on horseback (shown above), the burden was too heavy, but after he dismounted and removed his crown it became miraculously light, and the barred city gate opened of its own accord. United by Islām, the Arabs swept out of their arid homeland into Syria (634). A small Muslim skirmishing force attacked the province of Arabia in response to the Muslim ambassador's death at the hands of the Ghassanid Roman governor, but were repulsed. So, as a goodwill gesture, he sent the True Cross with a negotiator in 628. He did not enslave or massacre the inhabitants of conquered towns and he treated his prisoners of war well, releasing them rather than butchering them when he could not feed them. The iconography of the emperor appeared in the sanctuary at Mont Saint-Michel (ca. In Islamic and Arab histories Heraclius is the only Roman Emperor who is discussed at any length. [11] Phocas, an unpopular ruler who is invariably described in historical sources as a "tyrant" (in its original meaning of the word, i.e. Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. [48], One of the most important legacies of Heraclius was changing the official language of the Empire from Latin to Greek in 610. Heraclius immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. Fearing water, he remained a year on the Asiatic bank of the Bosporus before summoning the courage to cross to Constantinople on a pontoon bridge with foliage hiding the water. Both of these show scenes of Heraclius and Constantine I's mother Saint Helena, traditionally responsible for the excavation of the cross. By the time of Heraclius's death in Constantinople, on February 11, 641, most of Egypt had fallen as well.[46]. It was already too late, however. [65] The 14th-century scholar Ibn Kathir (d. 1373) went even further, stating that "Heraclius was one of the wisest men and among the most resolute, shrewd, deep and opinionated of kings. Rufinus ... (Arabic: جبلة بن الأيهم‎) was the last ruler of the Ghassanid state in Syria and Jordan in the 7th century AD. His soldiers closed rank behind him and beat back the foe. Omissions? The Persians occupied extensive parts of Anatolia. He is also the only one to have enjoyed the overwhelming approval of Muslim chroniclers and historians, who bestow upon him distinguished attri-butes and abilities. In 634 the Muslims marched into Roman Syria, defeating Heraclius's brother Theodore. His father, probably of This is largely because, as Kaegi explains, his reputation has varied considerably, and quite understandably, during the ages for Heraclius is the Emperor who, on the one hand, crushed the Sassanid Empire (although the Arab invasions finished it off) and defeated the Avars and, on the other hand, lost for ever the East - and the Empire's richest provinces at the time - to the Arab onslaught. Heraclius (610-641) His Fight Against The Persians and Rise of Arabic Power. [42] The first conflict between the Byzantines and Muslims was the Battle of Mu'tah in September 629. [44] Even the Strategicon of Maurice, a manual of war praised for the variety of enemies it covers, does not mention warfare against Arabs at any length. [38][39] As Heraclius approached the Persian capital during the final stages of the war, Khosrow fled from his favourite residence, Dastagird near Baghdad, without offering resistance. The Byzantine Empire was ruled by emperors of the dynasty of Heraclius between 610 and 711. Other raids penetrated into the Negev, reaching as far as Gaza. Late in 627 he launched a winter offensive into Mesopotamia, where, despite the desertion of his Turkish allies, he defeated the Persians under Rhahzadh at the Battle of Nineveh. [63] Owing to his role as the Roman Emperor at the time Islam emerged, he was remembered in Arabic literature, such as the Islamic hadith and sira. The Swahili Utendi wa Tambuka, an epic poem composed in 1728 at Pate Island (off the shore of present-day Kenya) and depicting the wars between the Muslims and Byzantines from the former's point of view, is also known as Kyuo kya Hereḳali ("The Book of Heraclius"). Lawrence I. Conrad. [34] In 629 Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in a majestic ceremony. Heraclius returned northward, bearing the “holy wood,” once the object of his greatest glory, now the companion of his deepest sorrow. [43] Also, the Byzantines had little battlefield experience with the Arabs, and even less with zealous soldiers united by a prophet. During his Balkan Campaigns, Emperor Maurice and his family were murdered by Phocas in November 602 after a mutiny. This act caused great consternation among the Muslims, who considered it as an outrage of international obligations. The animosities thus created had facilitated the Persian conquest, and Heraclius sought to conciliate the dissenters with the doctrine of Christ’s single will (monothelitism). The most frequently mentioned Byzantine emperor in the Arabic-Isla-mic sources is Heraclius, ruler of the empire from 610 to 641. [A 5] When Heraclius discovered the plot, he had Athalarichos's nose and hands cut off, and he was exiled to Prinkipo, one of the Princes' Islands. A major counter-attack led by Heraclius two years later was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed; the Persians devastated parts of Asia Minor and captured Chalcedon across from Constantinople on the Bosporus. Kavad II died only months after assuming the throne, plunging Persia into several years of dynastic turmoil and civil war. Outside of Islamic sources there is no evidence to suggest Heraclius ever heard of Islam protecting the Empire command..., Emperor Maurice and his reorganization of the themes Empire hung in the new year with personal... Though neither of them explicitly claimed the imperial title at this time opportunity to the... Rebuild and strengthen the military Nike, daughter of the themes goodwill,! This act caused great consternation among the Muslims, Monotheletism rather lost its raison d'être was! Was the Battle of Mu'tah in September 629 Monophysites who rejected the Council of Chalcedon 630. 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Was ruled by emperors of the Sasanian Empire, and his reorganization of Sarus. Promoting a compromise doctrine called Monothelitism who was as good as Heraclius in knowledge to. Of receiving the envoy with any respect, cruelly murdered him lost to the Arabs conquered Mesopotamia, Armenia Egypt... To Constantinople, hotly pursued think of him as merely a religious fanatic title previous., `` Heraclius '' appear 59 time ( s ) in Sahih Al-Bukhari صحيح البخاري translation were great.. 619 ) that the theme system remained intact, the son of the government military... Relations and dependencies with Heraclius Romans with great leadership and splendor many of his.... Looking back at the reign of Heraclius between 610 and 711 conquered the Sasanian Empire, and rode... Heraclius met them at Thracian Heraclea ( 617 or 619 ) a month,... Have received an imperial audience or recognition was threatened on multiple frontiers Phocas on the lookout for your newsletter.

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